The Green River Union Pacific Depot in the winter of 2019. The railroad town was long friendly ground for Wyoming Democrats. People familiar with the region’s politics say change began when an oil boom in the early aughts brought in blue-collar workers who didn’t identify with Sweetwater County’s union-centric, democratic leaning politics. (Andrew Graham/WyoFile)

In Sweetwater County, the November election capped — at least for now — a decades-long shift of one of the state’s few Democratic strongholds from blue to red.

The transition marks a milestone for the state’s southwest region, as well as its statehouse, which is ever-more dominated by the Republican Party. The Rock Springs and Green River election results also represent gaps the state’s struggling minority party must overcome if it hopes to achieve relevance anytime soon, Democratic politicos say.

A House in Green River still sports signs for local and national Democratic candidates the week after the November election. (Tennessee Watson)

Democrats suffered two losses in the House as 14-year-veteran lawmaker Rep. Stan Blake (D-Green River) lost to Libertarian Marshall Burt by 275 votes. Meanwhile, Republican Mark Baker defeated Democrat Lindsey Travis to flip retiring Rep. John Freeman’s Rock Springs seat. Baker will return to the Legislature after representing a different Sweetwater County House District from 2013-2017. In the Senate, lawmaker Liisa Anselmi-Dalton (D-Rock Springs) lost to Republican John Kolb by 702 votes. 

Democrats retained one seat in the county, that of retiring Rep. JoAnne Dayton-Selman. Democrat Chad Banks, a former Rock Springs city councilman and manager of an urban renewal initiative, won the seat.  He was unopposed.

Times weren’t always so tough for Democrats in the state’s southwest. 

In 2004, the year Republican President George Bush won reelection with Wyoming politician Vice President Dick Cheney on the ticket, Democrats won three of six Wyoming House seats and three of four Wyoming Senate seats including Sweetwater County.

Those lawmakers worked in a statehouse with a more robust partisan divide. The 2005 Legislature had 17 Democrats in the House and seven in the Senate, according to Ballotpedia.

In contrast, just two Democratic senators and seven Democratic representatives will take their seats this January.

Working on the railroad

Democratic Party politics in southern Wyoming share an origin source with statehood itself: the construction of the Union Pacific railroad. The development of coal mines and train yards across the railroad’s route drew union laborers and built a stronghold for Democratic politicians, according to, a project of the Wyoming State Historical Society. 

Though not everyone familiar with the area’s political history considers the union vote naturally Democratic, they agree that a strong labor movement helped the party’s candidates. 

“It is very definitely because of some pronounced union history,” said Chris Boswell, a Democrat who served as state representative from Green River from 1993 to 2003 and went on to a long career in Wyoming government and politics.

But, “union labor in Sweetwater County was not a solid vote for Democrats,” Boswell said.

Still, until the mid-2000s at least, an affiliation with the Democratic Party was helpful for winning public office in Sweetwater County, according to residents and former state politicians. 

“It was important to be a Democrat and it was important to say you were a Democrat,” Bernadine Craft (D-Rock Springs), who served in the House from 2007-2012 and then in the Senate from 2013-2016, said.

Nate Martin, who grew up in Rock Springs and today directs the progressive political organization Better Wyoming, said his once-Republican mother registered as a Democrat to make sure she had a say in primary elections. It’s a tactic left-leaning residents in many parts of Wyoming are familiar with today, but in reverse. 

A slow-moving but fundamental change in the county’s bedrock politics coincided with an oil and gas boom beginning in 2006, around the time of Craft’s first election, locals say. To Craft, the change seemed to come on fairly quickly. 

“After that first election, I never again put ‘Democrat’ on my campaign signs,” she said. 

A different shade of blue collar

The coal mining, railroad and later coal-burning power plant jobs of southwest Wyoming shared more in common than unionization. Their industries, at least until coal’s current decline began, offered long-lasting and stable careers. 

“If you get a job at the mines or the power plant, you’re [often] working there the rest of your life,” Martin said. 

The oil-and-gas boom of the early aughts brought an influx of new workers to the region. The jobs may have been considered blue collar like those on railroads and in coal mines and power plants, but the politics were distinct.

Former state senator Bernadine Craft (D-Rock Springs)

If local and national union leaders tried to push their members’ votes toward Democrats, oil and gas bosses had a different message for their non-unionized employees, Boswell recalled. 

“Their employers very effectively tell them, ‘the Republicans will support your continued livelihood and the Democrats are trying to put too many restrictions on our way of doing business,’” he said, “so vote Republican.” 

Democrats struggled to counter the suggestions that they were a threat to the oil and gas industry, he said. “If there’s a perception that one side of the political equation is more interested in my paycheck and my financial security, then the votes are going to go that way.” 

By 2012, the year of President Barack Obama’s reelection, Democrats were losing ground in Sweetwater County, losing two seats in the House. The party had already lost a Senate seat by that election. 

Craft was always supportive of the energy industry, she said. She recalled “hearing whispers that people were being warned against Democrats because they were the enemy of oil and gas, which upset me greatly,” she said, “because I’ve always known where the bread is buttered here.”

Her former House district used to include the oil and gas town of Wamsutter. Craft always won her elections, but lost the vote in that town, she said.

“I would go out there and campaign heavily and everyone was happy to see me and everything was good, and then they never voted for me,” she said. 

Today, the state’s oil and gas industries are both in a bust. The influx of new workers has ceased. But the political change stuck. 

“The flavor that was imparted then is still with us and it remains here,” Craft said. 

Union or not

Wyoming Democratic politicians, and voters, have often considered themselves as distinct from the national party. In Wyoming, blue-party politicians often support the fossil fuel industry and resist gun control measures. 

At the statehouse, many Democratic lawmakers focus on issues they believe can gain support across the aisle, like Blake’s focus on wildlife protections that were popular with both hunters and conservationists.

Rep. Stan Blake (D-Green River)

Such tactics, however, weren’t enough to overcome polarized politics, Blake said. “I had several people tell me, ‘you’re a Democrat. There’s no way I can vote for you,’” he said.

Many in Wyoming, including prominent politicians, place coal’s decline at the feet of Democratic politicians and policies. 

“Fossil fuels are at the top of people’s lists, certainly for their own livelihood,” Joshua Coursey, a native of Sweetwater County and the director of the hunters’ organization Muley Fanatics, said. 

The national Democratic Party is represented in ways that voters in most of Wyoming find hard to accept, too. The national party stance on gun control also displeases voters in the area, Coursey said. 

“There seems to be more of a left leaning, socialist type of governing, and that just doesn’t align with people’s values in southwest Wyoming,” he said. “When you think Democrat, [California Sen. Dianne] Feinstein, [Senate Minority Leader Chuck] Schumer and [House Speaker Nancy] Pelosi come to mind and any association with that in southwest Wyoming is not only not appealing… it’s appalling.” 

Can Dems come back? 

Democratic losses in Sweetwater County were magnified by Rep. Sara Burlingame’s defeat by Republican John Romero-Martinez in Cheyenne. Democrats only achieved one flip, as Trey Sherwood captured a seat previously held by Rep. Dan Furphy in Laramie. Furphy moved on to the state Senate, and Sherwood defeated Republican Matthew Burkhart by fewer than 100 votes. 

Albany County was Wyoming Democrats’ bright spot in the election. The county voted for Donald Trump in 2016, but supported President-elect Joe Biden this year. Democrat Sue Ibarra also narrowly defeated the Republican chair of the county commission, Terri Jones. Albany and Teton were the only Wyoming counties to vote blue this year.

While incumbent Democrats lost in Sweetwater, Republican incumbents beat back a wave of aggressive challenges in Laramie County, in some cases by tight margins. To win back seats, the party will need to think long term and candidates will need to develop relationships with voters that will weather polarized politics, Boswell said.

“Wyoming Democrats have proven they can win despite the national party,” he said. “The challenge is to be relevant in conversations at the dinner table. Conversations about work, conversations about things that people love to do like hunting and being out and about in public spaces.”

Trump won’t be on the ballot in Wyoming in 2022. Politicos contemplating Sweetwater County, or Wyoming at large, aren’t certain if that gives Democrats an opportunity, but, they say, the state’s dire straits might crack the door: If the fossil fuel economy continues to wallow, and Wyoming’s economy with it, voters might be open to change.

“The ability to address what I think everyone agrees is a very significant problem… all rests with one party right now,” Boswell said. “If that party fails, and if Wyoming falls into too deep an abyss … that’s the opportunity for the folks that are challenging the status quo. Whether that’s a third party, from within the Republicans or from Democrats.” 

Support in-depth reporting — donate to WyoFile today.

CORRECTION: This story has been updated to clarify Nate Martin’s comments about his mother, who was a registered Republican before he was born. —Ed.

Andrew Graham is reporting for WyoFile from Laramie. He covers state government, energy and the economy. Reach him at 443-848-8756 or at, follow him @AndrewGraham88

Join the Conversation


Want to join the discussion? Fantastic, here are the ground rules: * Provide your full name — no pseudonyms. WyoFile stands behind everything we publish and expects commenters to do the same. * No personal attacks, profanity, discriminatory language or threats. Keep it clean, civil and on topic. *WyoFile does not fact check every comment but, when noticed, submissions containing clear misinformation, demonstrably false statements of fact or links to sites trafficking in such will not be posted. *Individual commenters are limited to three comments per story, including replies.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

  1. As a former resident, I remember many non-socialistic Democrats who put Wyoming residents first in any discussion. No egos there. But the former Prof from Wyo who spent 6weeks in Russia and declared himself an expert was too much. Long time ago.
    . I remember Rudy Anselmi who was a conservative people person, ,liked by everyone for his pragmatic approach to issues. My kinda guy, not like Pelosi or Schumer.

  2. This story makes it sound like Republicans were just better at messaging about oil and gas jobs.

    The reality is that the Democrats abandoned oil and gas workers. Now a central part of their platform is an end to fracking. It’s to the point that Democrats like Barbuto in Wyoming won’t even disavow the radical stances of Pelosi and AOC.

  3. “If local and national union leaders tried to push their members’ votes toward Democrats, oil and gas bosses had a different message for their non-unionized employees, Boswell recalled.

    If local and national union leaders tried to push their members’ votes toward Democrats, oil and gas bosses had a different message for their non-unionized employees, Boswell recalled.”

    Unfortunately many union workers in Wyoming are now following this trend and support politicians who
    believe and perpetuate this myth. What the workers don’t seem to be able to grasp is that when a company folds, whether because of low market, changing technology or just poor management, the employer usually walks away with a gold mine and the workers get the shaft.

  4. Democrats are going to take the blame for addressing climate change and not being dependent on the oil and gas industry.
    Wyoming has been in servitude to the extractive industry for a long time, We enjoyed the booms and suffered the busts. Wyoming has never diversified. Likely many will leave the state before something else provides jobs.
    And as one person said, many in Wyoming are bigots. They don’t want to have people of color or women in charge. Many are homophobic. That reputation is attracting more undesirables.

  5. Several years ago, I was walking neighborhoods and passing out leaflets for the Democratic Gubernatorial candidate, Pete Gosar. A man was in his driveway so I asked him to read the literature. He asked if Gosar was a Democrat, which I affirmed. The man said, “I was a Democrat, too, until you guys elected that n*****.” That was not the last of that type of comment that I encountered. So there is that component of the Wyoming electorate that exists, and we should not ignore or support it.
    Bernadine Craft’s comment – ““After that first election, I never again put ‘Democrat’ on my campaign signs,” she said.” sticks with me. In this past election, there were no campaign signs for Democrats that had ‘Democrat’ on them. If we’re so ashamed of our policies and our party, we deserve to lose.

  6. Teno Roncalio was the last and maybe only Democrat elected to the United States House of Representatives from Wyoming and from Rocket City. The US Post Office in Rocket City has his name on it. Teno was a very good representative of Wyoming.

  7. No surprise here. The dems are becoming the party of the elite managerial class. Plenty of those voters in Teton, but not many in Sweetwater. The GOP is the party of the people. Welcome to the GOP Sweetwater County!