Many popular Wyoming mountain biking destnations, such as Grand Targhee pictured here, aren't appropriate for e-bikes traditional trail use, advocates say. (Photo by Lindsay Nohl)

The cyclists looked strange even from a distance.

Josh Metten spotted them two weeks ago while peddling Munger Mountain in the Bridger-Teton National Forest — a group of fellow riders, on fatbikes in full body armor. It wasn’t until he stopped to talk to the bikers though that he realized they were on electric bikes, not classic mountain bikes.

E-bikes have motors and aren’t allowed on non-motorized forest trails such as the one Metten was riding on Munger Mountain. It was the first time he’d run into riders on e-bikes, but he’d heard they’d been seen on the mountain trails.

E-bikes on non-motorized trails are a new and growing problem on the Bridger-Teton, said Linda Merigliano, forest recreation and program manager. E-bikes started appearing a year ago in areas like Munger Mountain, Teton Pass and on the Cache-Game trail near Jackson, and they’ve become a growing concern this summer — due both to their increased popularity and their beefed-up, almost motorcycle-like capabilities. Merigliano fielded two complaints in one weekend from trail users running into e-bike riders.

Most users don’t think of e-bikes as motorized and aren’t trying to break rules, Merigliano said. So the Forest Service is working to educate the rapidly growing new group of recreationists on the regulations and where they can legally ride.

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The Forest Service classifies e-bikes as motorized vehicles, and just like with OHVs and motorcycles, riders are subject to stiff penalties for misuse — a $225 fine for using an e-bike in non-motorized areas. “There’s a slippery slope when you have an electric powered motor on the bike, it does become a motor vehicle,” Merigliano said. “You just have to draw the line somewhere.”

E-bikes can be difficult to differentiate at a glance, but their capabilities can more closely resemble motorcycles than traditional bikes, some riders say, making them unsafe on many trails. (Photo by Bad Kleinkirchheim, courtesy of Flickr Creative Commons)
E-bikes can be difficult to differentiate at a glance, but their capabilities more closely resemble motorcycles than traditional bicycles, some riders say, making them unsafe for many trails. (Photo by Bad Kleinkirchheim, courtesy of Flickr Creative Commons)

E-bikes and motorcycles are permitted on Munger Mountain July 1 through Sept. 9 and on many other trails throughout the forest.

The prohibition of e-bikes and other motorized vehicles in some areas is primarily a safety issue. Some electric bikes can go up to 45 mph — dangerous speeds when trails are also used by hikers, traditional mountain bikers and horseback riders.

“It’s a black-and-white issue,” said Kevin Kavanagh, president of the mountain biking advocacy group Teton Freedom Riders.

Kavanagh hasn’t personally run into any e-bikes on non-motorized trails, but he also can go an entire year without running into friends he knows ride the mountain regularly. The Teton Freedom Riders aren’t rangers and don’t police the trails, but do respect forest service rules.  The prohibition of e-bikes makes sense, he said. They are more like motorized vehicles than bicycles, in his mind, even if they don’t use fuel.

“It’s one of those activities that’s ahead of regulation,” Kavanagh said. “There’s all sorts of wonderful applications for them, but as far as in the non-motorized sections, no, they are motorized.”

Most people agree e-bikes do serve an important purpose as an alternative to cars, said Jack Kohler, program director at Friends of Pathways in Jackson. Right now nothing prevents people from riding e-bikes on pathways managed by the town, though they aren’t allowed on the pathways by the National Elk Refuge or in Grand Teton National Park. Used on the road, they alleviate traffic congestion, but on a pathway with pedestrians and traditional cyclists they become dangerous.

While several bike stores in Jackson do rent and sell e-bikes, David Hunger, an owner of Teton Mountain Bike Tours, opted not to for now. There are too many places people aren’t allowed to ride and he worries people don’t know the rules and will take them places they shouldn’t, reflecting poorly on his business and mountain biking in general. They are, however, a growing trend in Jackson, he said.

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Metten sees the benefits of e-bikes in urban areas and hopes more people will use them as transportation on the streets.

“The whole issue I have as a mountain biker is, as a cross-country mountain biker, I work really hard to cover terrain and get to places that other bikes aren’t getting,” he said.

Munger Mountain is also important raptor nesting habitat and an important calving area for deer and elk and therefore incompatible with motorized transportation, said Metten, who is a naturalist and former Wyoming Wilderness Association staffer.

The e-bike riders Metten met on Munger Mountain were friendly. When asked if they were on motorized bikes, they said no, they were on e-bikes.

That’s the problem, Metten said. People are still confused as to what e-bikes are and where they are allowed.


Kelsey Dayton is a freelancer and the editor of Outdoors Unlimited, the magazine of the Outdoor Writers Association of America. She has worked as a reporter for the Gillette News-Record, Jackson Hole News&Guide...

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  1. I think it’s crazy they’re not allowed. They need to allow an actually e-bike mountain bike. There are different kinds. I work and sweat just as much on the e-bike than a regular bike it weights 50 pounds. Other resorts all over the place have e bike only trails or mixed bike trails. I can’t afford to go buy a 6k regular mountain bike just to ride 4 months a year when I have a e bike that is paid for. But yes draw a line on what some people say are e-bikes. I have to pedal the shit out of mine and I have a pedal assist I stop peddling I go backwards, that’s what needs to be allowed. Just sucks I can’t ride my own area and have to travel to other ski resorts to ride that allow e-bikes. Like if you wanna ride your e-bike take it have it inspected to get it approved and have a sticker idk. But there are so many types of e-bikes some should be allowed is in the Pedal assist full suspension bikes. Like the older you get the e-bikes are perfect for so you can get out and still pedal with friends,

  2. Ebikes are the only way many of us who’ve been paying all the taxes that funded those trails over the last 40 years can get to see them.

    If you want to take away our right to partake in what we paid for, maybe its time to cut funding altogether.

  3. The officials and you need to get educated about Ebikes. The article says you have to draw the line sonewhere. Well there is a line but not the one reported here. Look up the new California laws on Ebikes and you will see there is a clear line at 250’w motors limited to 20 mph. These are standard limits in us states and in Canada that classify an Ebike as a bike , anything more powerful than that is like a motor bike and is the kind of vehicle that these riders and officials are scared of.,the lower powered bikes I describe are the majority and the motor is only used as a aid ..most of the time the bike is being used as a pedaled bike ( pedelec)
    I am a disabled former keen biker and mth climber and I treasure the back country aesthetic …these Ebikes do not threaten that. The big ones that are high powered do. My Ebike allows me to ride trails here in Vancouver where I am never going as fast as the regular man bikers ..I cannot walk so the Ebike is my ticket into nature .,the cut off of motorised vs non motorised is outdated ..the,California laws restricting Ebikes sensibly is where you need to look ,for your article . Good journalism dictates getting both sides of an issue ,,,why don’t you try its its a fascinating world .

  4. As one of those “older people”, I would say if someone is too infirm to ride a regular bicycle, they are unable to control one as well. For the disabled, electric wheelchairs are allowed on National park paved pathways. The question of whether to allow electric motorized vehicles has to take ALL electric conveyances into account. These include:motorized skateboards, top speed,25 mph+, no brakes; hover boards, basically a skateboard that moves sideways, no brakes; one wheels, a skateboard with one big wheel in the center, no brakes; segways, golf carts, and whatever somebody comes up with. It took 40 years for us to establish our non-motorized pathway system. Non-motorized means (duh) non-motorized. A couple of 13 year olds, feeling their oats, on 45 mph capable E-mopeds, and no skills, is a pretty frightening prospect on a pathway. Local councils, commissions and the legislature needs to examine this subject before the inevitable tragedy.

  5. There should be a way for older people and people with disabilities to use e-bikes on the trails. I agree that most young people should not ride them in non-motorized areas.

  6. Informative article, Kelsey! I’d never heard of these bikes. Thank you for getting the word out.