As parents, students, administrators and district employees nervously eye the reopening of Wyoming schools under coronavirus pandemic rules, many are uncertain that safety plans will protect them and their communities. 

Top state officials including Gov. Mark Gordon, State Health Officer Dr. Alexia Harrist and Superintendent of Public Instruction Jillian Balow are working to ensure plans are appropriate for schools. Balow is reviewing each of the plans for Wyoming’s 48 school districts for conformance to her Smart Start guidance.

Most districts anticipate opening to in-school classes under a “Tier 1” scenario, Kari Eakins, the education department’s chief policy officer said at a Wyoming Public Media virtual forum last week. Tier 1 offers mitigation measures that place responsibilities on parents — who, among other things, are asked to screen their children for symptoms before each school day.

There are no federal or state orders that require school testing and contact tracing. There’s no Wyoming requirement for temperature-taking at school building entrances, or mask-wearing throughout buildings.

Meantime, Harrist’s existing order for schools — the statewide authority on the issue — says face masks “shall” be worn in schools where 6 feet of separation can’t be maintained. Superintendents appear satisfied with the program, said Gov. Mark Gordon, who participated in a conference call with them last week.

He dismissed a notion they harbored worries. “I feel very confident our schools are in good hands,” he said at a press conference.

There’s unease nevertheless. Of teachers responding to a Wyoming Education Association survey this summer, 17% said they were considering not returning to their jobs.

Teachers worry that administrators didn’t take their concerns into account, aren’t requiring stringent enough mask use and are relying on parents’ assessments of students’ health, said Grady Hutcherson, president of the association. There aren’t nurses in each school, and teachers are being overworked and not provided with appropriate protective equipment, he said.

“It definitely is an issue and a concern,” Hutcherson said of the worries.

In Albany County District 1 the best practice would be for “all learning [to] be virtual online,” members of a 300-strong ad-hoc coalition of parents and others wrote school board trustees. Short of online-only education, Albany County for Healthy & Safe Schools demands better schoolroom ventilation, more custodial staff, PPE, testing and scientific justifications for policies, according to the group’s letter to officials.

48 separate plans

Balow is reading each of the 48 districts’ plans and offering revisions, said Linda Finnerty, communications director at the education department. Districts themselves select whether their communities are ready for Tier 1 openings, in-person curricula that offer students a virtual-learning option; Tier 2, a hybrid of in-school and virtual-classroom instruction; or Tier 3, which is entirely online.

Several districts, including ones in Teton and Fremont counties, are opting not to have students return to schools under the least-restrictive Tier 1. Instead, four districts on the Wind River Indian Reservation will begin with remote-learning-only Tier 3 instruction, according to tribal postings and news reports. Teton County anticipates a hybrid Tier 2 system in which there will be a combination of in-school and remote instruction.

Scenes like this one from Natalie Lyon’s third grade class at John Colter Elementary school in Jackson in 2017 may not be seen for a while. (Angus M. Thuermer, Jr./WyoFile)

In other districts, Balow has apparently pointed out shortcomings in Tier 1 plans, recommending they conform to Harrist’s statewide schools order. For Fremont County District 1 in Lander, for example, the initial plan to use face coverings “to the greatest extent possible,” fell short, according to a message Superintendent Dave Barker wrote to parents. 

“Face coverings are required when physical distancing can not [sic] be maintained,” he wrote Friday, superseding his earlier statement. That comports with Harrist’s current statewide order for schools. 

Although that order expires on Aug. 15, many officials believe it will be extended, Finnerty said.

Education officials do not have the authority to require that students have their temperature taken before entering a building, she said. The Wyoming High School Activities Association, which oversees school sports, wrote that schools “should endeavor to implement” screening including a temperature check for students participating in activities and sports.

Screening requires checking off boxes on a form, according to the association’s plan. One box requires a yes or no answer under the column heading “Temperature above 100.4.” Screenings would occur even before workouts, but there’s no mention of the use of any kind of a thermometer.

Parents, teachers and other employees need to look up their district’s individual plans, Eakins said.

“Right now, it’s looking like most schools are really looking at, especially at the secondary level … things like temperature-taking and checklists in the morning for parents before they send kids into school,” DOE policy officer Eakins said at the virtual forum. She elaborated, saying “even at the districts that are thinking of doing some temperature-taking, sometimes [temperature-taking is] limited to staff, sometimes it’s limited to older students or students involved in additional sports and activities.”

Parents worry…

Back-to-school comes amid troubling and sometimes conflicting reports about community spread, kids effectiveness as disease carriers and new questions about pediatric susceptibility to COVID-19.  Georgia’s North Paulding High School closed soon after students returned Aug. 3, due to an outbreak and there was a similar incident in Israel.

The New York Times estimated that a Teton County school of 500 (the Jackson Hole High School had almost 700 students last school year) would see nine people with COVID-19 enter the institution a week if it opened to in-person teaching. The early closure of summer classes at Jackson Hole Middle School “because of a COVID-19 case” buttressed the need for caution. 

Likely adding to uncertainties is a new report by the Centers for Disease Control that says, “children of all ages are susceptible” to COVID-19 and that they “might play an important role in transmission.” A warning from White House Coronavirus Coordinator Dr. Deborah Birx that the widespread virus is now infecting people in rural areas raises another red flag for the least-populated state in the nation. Resistance to public health orders by politicians remains, however, including in Goshen County where commissioners passed a resolution encouraging citizens to “refrain from any county-level virus-related mandates concerning individual health-care decisions.”

Political motive permeates Albany County District 1 school decisions, said Matt Stannard, the parent who started a Facebook group that morphed into the Albany County for Healthy & Safe Schools group. “Many of us felt like this has been a political push, not a scientific push,” he said of the district’s plans.

Although district parents can opt for virtual learning, even though the school will begin the year under in-school, in-person Tier 1 protocols, “not everyone can use that option equally,” he said.

“My position is that if there is one parent who is dropping their child off at school saying, ‘I am terrified but I don’t have a choice because I have to go to work, I’m doing this out of economic necessity,’ that’s unacceptable,” Stannard said. “It’s really just a way of saying ‘some of you will have to throw your kids into this petri dish and some of you won’t.’”

The father of three school-aged children, Stannard said the group also wants clear descriptions of disciplinary plans. 

“My kid says the same kid who’s tripping me in the hall every day is the one who is going to say, ‘I’m violating social distancing, what are you going to do about it?’” Stannard said. “Do you get an anti-masker family whose kid got suspended? Then things are going to get interesting.”

WyoFile did not receive a response to a request for comment from the district’s administration.

…So do teachers

The Education Association, which says it has more than 6,300 teachers and other employees as members, has been trying to look at as many school-opening plans as possible, Hutcherson said.

“Unfortunately, there are … districts where the plans were developed from the administrative level — top down,” he said. “Those plans that had the least amount of input from teachers are the same plans that have the greatest concern about what is in the plan.”

Fremont County School District #1 teacher Julie Calhoun and paraprofessional Stephanie Harris hand out bagged free lunches in front of Gannett Peak Elementary School in Lander on March 27, shortly after schools across the state closed. (Katie Klingsporn/WyoFile)


The association, and others, are worried about students who might not have access to on-line learning or who rely on schools for food, Hutcherson said. “Sadly, it really shined a bright light on the inequities that exist, whether it’s connectivity and devices, or support from adults at home,” he said.

There’s a lack of funds to accomplish necessary tasks, WEA believes. “We definitely need increased funding and more money [for] the basic attempt to try and mitigate COVID-19,” Hutcherson said. “We are in desperate need of that.”

Worries extend to nursing. “There’s a significant portion of schools that don’t have a full-time nurse in their buildings,” Eakins said. Wyoming school districts employ a total of 188 nurses, according to information Hutcherson provided. 

The DOE counted an average daily membership of 91,469 students in all Wyoming schools during the 2018-19 school year. Using those figures, each nurse would be responsible for an average of about 486 students.

Hutcherson taught second grade in Goshen County’s Torrington for 24 years before recently retiring to take his WEA post, he said. 

“All it would take is a family to head over to Scottsbluff” — about 25 miles away across the Nebraska border — for the myth of rural insulation from the virus to be shattered. What would happen to a classroom if an instructor were quarantined, he wondered?

“If there is a teacher who is not feeling well or has some of the symptoms, in my mind it would be pretty difficult for a sub being really excited or wanting to go into that classroom,” he said.

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In Park County, high school journalism teacher Erika Quick said uncertainty is the hallmark of the times. The mother of two young girls, she’s generally comfortable about her own and her family’s health because of her age.

Older teachers, however, and some others may be more vulnerable. “I’m nervous for [the health of] people I work with,” she said. “I try to stay positive, but I would say it’s hard not to be scared. 

“We love our jobs, we want to be good teachers,” Quick said. “I just hope everyone can be flexible, adaptable, understanding.”

Angus M. Thuermer Jr. is the natural resources reporter for WyoFile. He is a veteran Wyoming reporter and editor with more than 35 years experience in Wyoming. Contact him at or (307)...

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  1. So the governor extended statewide health orders yesterday that include restrictions on indoor gatherings of more than 50 people without masks, sanitation and social distancing, or no more than 250 people WITH masks, sanitation, and social distancing. Why exactly do these orders not also apply to schools in the state? High schools in Casper and Cheyenne have over 1000 students each, all in a single building, all at the same time for hours upon hours every day. It is physically impossible for these schools to maintain recommended social distancing within their building throughout the school day. In fact MOST Wyoming schools have more than 250 students, PLUS teachers and staff.

    Why is this deemed “safe” for schools, but an indoor gathering of 251 people wearing masks and maintaining 6 feet distance between them at all times is deemed “unsafe” for literally everyone else in the state in any other context?

  2. Conspiracy theories that are proven to be true end up not being “theories” so keep it up with our childish, unresearched, unproven insults, time has and will continue to prove me and those that are spreading these TRUTHS to be right! Good luck with your train of thought and your insistence to deny the obvious truths all around you! I will not respond again, so don’t waste your worthless breath!

    1. you should look into scheduling a tele-health appointment with a counselor. Your delusions seem like they are becoming a bit tough for you to manage.

      I mean that sincerely and hope you’re able to get a handle on your life.


  3. Great story Angus. I, too, hope you’ll continue covering school reopenings amid the pandemic.

    Your story was thorough, well-researched and completely factual as always with perfect turns of phrase.
    I’d like to echo Candra Day’s story requests.

    Additionally, Teton County needs a story or a series with an in-depth, investigative local focus on the various angles on reopening Teton schools and what residents here would like to see. And, as Candra suggested, we need a thorough look at inequalities and steps that can be taken now to prevent people without financial resources from suffering a worse fate due to the pandemic, infection- and education-wise.

    Teton County has led the state in intelligent management of the pandemic, despite some costly mistakes, such as the delay in mandating masks here.

    Our state government and so many Wyoming counties continue to politically polarize everything that has to do with Covid-19 at a deadly cost.

    Hearing people cast masks and other Covid safety protocols as unconstitutional or politically motivated simply shows their dangerous ignorance and is deeply troubling on so many levels.

    These safety measures are about protecting ourselves and others from the ravages of this disease.

    Travis Riddell and local leaders have done well in standing up to the state health officer and governor in setting an entirely different, safer path for our county so far. Can this continue? Will local leaders chart a separate course for us than other parts of the state?

    Can they pull it off again regarding local school reopenings? Will there be the strong backbone needed to make locally based choices that keep our community truly safe with the intent to bring case numbers back to zero as they were before the tourist onslaught?

    State leaders are increasingly pushing back/interfering in our local affairs, whether they pertain to land development regulations, how we handle schooling during Covid or creating a safe countywide tourism approach. These are strange times, and our blue dot in this red state needs to fight political influences of the Trump Administration and powerful state leaders with strong ties to a frightening president.

    We badly need a preventive story that clearly highlights past Covid-related mistakes here and elsewhere so local decision-makers and residents can avoid the potential high cost of schools reopening in person this fall.

    Our summer tourism season began dangerously and cost us deeply, Will decision-makers and residents learn from this when reopening schools in a few weeks?

    Will we have enough protective mandates in place or will there be delays that will cost us lives and suffering, while overwhelming St. John’s Health?

    Good journalism is our only weapon against poor decision-making at the state level that harms locals.

    Thanks for your excellent journalistic coverage. And I truly wish some of your readers who commented here were sharp enough to recognize the excellent job you do.

    Many thanks

  4. Dear Angus,
    Congrats on your award! Well-deserved!

    I hope you’ll continue reporting on school re-opening issues during the coming weeks. For example, here in Teton County many of the wealthy families — and also middle-class families — are planning to hire a tutor and keep their children out of school, while families of the working poor will not have this option, again exacerbating the racial and ethnic disparities of the pandemic in the U.S. right here at home. Could you cover this? How much disparity already exists in Teton County cases? I don’t think it’s reported. Also, around the country, there seems to be much news of COVID spread in schools that have re-opened. Could you report about this, especially from similar settings? And I would love to hear more from teachers. Thanks!

  5. If I were a parent of school aged children during this SCAMdemic BS, I would not send mine back BECAUSE of the dangerous protocol that is being shoved down their throats. The parents that are following the protocol agenda are causing soooo much damage not only health wise, but mentally and emotionally as well, ever heard of “Herd Immunity”?, it does exist and it IS a good thing! If you are truly sick or caring for someone who is, then do the same thing that you would do for a cold or flu every year, stay home, wash your hands, cover our mouth…! But that is not the only problem, the indoctrination of the children in schools that has been going on for decades is also a major problem. The DOE needs to be abolished as it is pushing communism and many other nefarious agendas on our children not to mention it is Constitutionally illegal just like ALL of the alphabet agencies. Shame on all of us for being cowards and allowing our country to fall into the hands of the enemy that IS accomplishing their destructive plan. The elected criminals and anyone demanding that we wear masks, have NO authority to do so. They are all in violation of USC 18, section 242 and should be arrested, but nobody knows that because nobody reads the Constitution or Bill of Rights anymore! Wake up and stop the deliberate Communist take over of our lives, if it’s not too late!

    1. your tin foil hat needs adjusting.

      you really should learn where to find factual information instead of the online echo chamber that you currently frequent.

      1. And I believe you need to wake up and actually pay attention to what is going on in your world, pull your head out of the sand and get enlightened! We all have our job to do and I will continue to try to wake up the ignorant masses to the crimes being committed against us and our children! God help us awaken those like you who think that all is well in the midst of such obvious tyranny! Don’t reply again, I have better things to do, like pick up fresh dog poop with my bare hands in the heat of the day, it will accomplish far more than bantering with a fool!

        1. you will “continue to wake the ignorant masses” by spewing conspiracy theories and flawed ideology? that is some brilliant logic sir.

          just because you believe everything you read on the “intrawebs” doesn’t mean others are as gullible as you.

          I pay attention enough to recognize someone who is ill-informed, un-educated, and spends entirely too much time reading idiotic articles online.

          I look forward to your next reply and can only hope that it’s a bit more based on reality and facts.

        2. Mr. Redmond: I do not know why a grown man such as yourself would go around picking up dog poop with your bare hands in the heat of the day, but whatever floats your boat, I guess.

          If you insist on doing this poop picking, however, please remember to wash your hands frequently and thoroughly. You might also consider a mask to help lessen the stench.

      2. I think this person could start the process of finding factual information by actually reading the constitution and the Bill of Rights. Given the incoherent, wild, and deeply incorrect claims made while vaguely referring to these documents, it is quite apparent that they have not actually read them.

        1. But, he watched videos he found on the internet! The internet doesn’t lie, it ALL has to be true!!

    2. I remind Ms Redmond that she can get a free blood pressure test at the drugstore in Powell. I stridently suggest she do just that before she blows a gasket or bloodline.

      Wow. Does the virus cause paranoid inflammation when it’s just floating around town as an aerosol ? And here I thought Cody next door was having a micro-epidemic of paranoia. We just had a local armed and mounted ( on horseback ! ) vigilante squad declare itself ready at the drop of a Stetson to defend Cody against rioters and looters. I’m not making that up… I worry about Hair Trigger Syndrome.